When we shoot butterfly, they are rather closeups.
There is another term 'Micro' next to macro, which has special instrument, might have seen in labs, for finding out the germs in various materials.
To achieve macro effect, photopersons use special macro lenses, may be 60mm,100mm and they work like a normal telephoto lens as well. They maintain certain good distance so the object is least disturbed. They are costlier, may be Rs.15k and more.They are used by pros and most enthusiasts. If u are interested in macro photography as well with other subjects, just buy a macro lens and make big hits with less trouble, in comparison to the small devices, I mention below.
Other cheaper alternatives are supplementary lenses, Reversal ring, Extension tubes, and extension bellows.
The drawback with them is going more and more closure to the objects and the objects rather move away or fly. It is a nerve-wrecking experience also.....focusing manually, using smallest possible aperture to maintain the losing DOF while going closure, moving backwards/forwards to bring the image in sharp focus while clicking, may need good trials...... .
Other method as I used in the photograph below is in pp, cropping the needed area. However, the difficulty is of losing pixels e.g. a 16MP image may come down to 6MP, 8MP etc. However, this will not make any difficulty in getting reasonable enlargements..... Further there is lighting, diffusers, camera stability, background clutters/bokeh etc.to shoot good macros....................Subjects are as many as u can think like insects, other small creatures, small part of them magnified, flowers, rings, watches, even a good attractive button of ur mobile phone etc.